The Networking and Information Technology Research and Development (NITRD) Program (formerly known as High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) Program) was created by the High Performance Computing Act of 1991, (P.L. 102-194) and amended by the Next Generation Internet Research Act of 1998 (P.L. 105-305), and the America COMPETES (Creating Opportunities to Meaningfully Promote Excellence in Technology, Education, and Science) Act of 2007 (P.L. 110-69). NITRD was reauthorized by Congress in the American Innovation and Competitiveness Act of 2017 (P.L. 114-329).